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跨文化交际在“会议须知”翻译中的体现

翻译并非字对字的形式对应,而是在理解原文的基础,进行意对意的翻译,此外还需要考虑到具体语言环境。翻译过程中,要传达字面意思表达实际语言效果,注意使用语言的得体性。因为翻译既是一种跨语言的交际活动,也是一种跨文化的交际活动。 在会议须知中译英过程中,通过“须知”两字便可发现中文用词为命令式,但英文会议须知一般为建议式,认定参会人员均为得体之人。因而在翻译选词用语中都要考虑到对国际交往的影响,在遵守中文原意的同时,翻译不宜过于强硬,要注意选词、文体、语用三个方面: 1. 选词: 原文:会议须知 初译:Conference notice 改译:Tips 分析:面对文化的差异,到底选择归化还是异化呢?可以先通观全文,了解文件的文体,确定文件的适用语气。在中国开会用的通知、须知,会列举一些注意事项,而西方的通知、须知可能是建议、提示。是保留中国特色还是入乡随俗?归根到底在于目标语言的读者,这里会议须知译文的读者应为以英语为母语,或不懂汉语、使用英语的与会人员。“Conference notice”对于译文读者可能会造成一种压迫感,而“Tips”语气更柔和。 2. 文体 原文:请参会代表遵守各项会议的时间、地点及日程安排,在集体活动中不随意单独行动,不做不利于安定团结事情。 初译一: Please be punctual and abide by conference time and schedule. Avoid acting alone at your discretion in collective activities or doing anything against collective stability and unity. 改译一: It’s a good practice to be punctual for the conference, and you’re suggested not to act individually at your discretion in the collective activities, nor go against collective stability and unity. 初译二: Please observe the time, place and itinerary schedule of each session. Please do not act alone at your discretion in collective activities and do not do things that are not conducive to collective stability and unity. 改译二: You are appreciated to be punctual for the conference, and suggested to not to act individually at your discretion in the collective activities, nor go against collective stability and unity. 分析:该文件为会议须知,提出了一些会议规定及提示,初译基本采用始祈使句的句型,句型较为单一,且祈使句表达的请求或命令,语气过于强硬,这种强硬规定不礼貌且让人有受胁迫感,所以尽量不要采用祈使句。初译二中的itinerary通常指旅游日程,而会议日程更多采用agenda一词;“do not do things that are not conducive to stability and unity”采用定于从句,句子过长,须知中最好采用简洁的用法,减少从句的使用频率。改译中采用了形式主语的形式,语气缓和,更适合会议语言环境。 3. 语用 原文(1):为使会议各项议程顺利进行,确保会议圆满成功,敬请各位参会代表知悉如下事项: 初译一: For the purpose of promoting the smooth progress of items on the agenda and making the conference a complete success, please pay attention to the follow matters: 改译一: For the complete success of the conference, it’s our honor to remind you of the following tips: 初译二: In order to facilitate the smooth ongoing of the conference and ensure the success of the conference, please be aware of the followings: 改译二: It’s our honor to remind you of the following tips: 分析:初译对“为使会议各项议程顺利进行,确保会议圆满成功”进行了相应直译,表面符合句意。但在英文中,并没有这样的逻辑关系或者意象。会议须知只是介绍一些会议事项,旨在让读者了解,所以最好要言简意赅,可省掉其中的套话。修改版进行了减译,译成“For the complete success of the conference~”,或直接译出主句,避免了中式意象在英文译文中不对应,且更符合会议须知翻译的言简性。翻译时可根据具体意思及文件情况,酌情判断是否需要进行简译。 原文(2):用餐时请持餐券,如有丢失,请及时与会务组联系,未用完的餐券请务必退回会务组或销毁,请不要随意丢弃。 初译一:Please take meal coupon for meal. If the coupon is lost, please contact the conference team in time; be sure to return the unused coupon to conference team or destroy it rather than discard it carelessly. 初译二:Please take the meal coupon when dining. If there is any loss, please contact the conference team in time. Please return the unused meal coupons to the conference team or destroy them. Please do not discard them. 改译:Buffets are available by vouchers during the dining time. In case of voucher missing, please timely contact the conference organizers. Please return the non-used vouchers to the conference organizers or make them not be used any more. 分析:“take meal coupon”和“Please do not discard them”太过直译,未表达原文体现意象和目的。“请持餐券”并不是要与会人员用餐时手持餐券,而是用餐时要出示餐券;“请不要随意丢弃”不是单纯提醒与会人员不要随意丢弃,主要是防止不正当的使用,所以“make them not be used any more”、“make/render them unusable”意思表达的更准确。“未用完的餐券请务必退回会务组或销毁,请不要随意丢弃”,这句话还可以译为“You are appreciated to return the non-used vouchers to the conference organizers or make them not be used for fear of misuse.”或“Please return the non-used vouchers to the conference organizers for fear of misuse.” 总结: 翻译时,一定要了解源语言的字面意义和蕴涵意义,以及可能产生的效果,根据具体语用环境进行翻译。要注意表达方式的妥帖性且应符合习惯规定。具体来说,要考虑到源语言和目标语言表达习惯的不同之处,考虑到文化差异,同时要考虑到读者的身份、地位和译文所适用的场合,切勿造成语用失误。
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