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浅谈翻译中的“转换”

一、概念

 

转换shift)是指把原文的语言单位或结构转化为目的语中具有类似属性、或对应属性、或异质属性的语言单位或结构的过程。转换可涉及拼字法、语音/音韵、词汇、句法、语篇、修辞、语义、语用、文化各个层面。

 

二、分类

 

1拼字法层面的转换。拼字法,是指一种语言中的基本单位(如词、字)的拼写方式及其所呈现的拼写形式。在这一层面,两种语言在很多情况下是无法转换的。如:

 

1

原文:-您贵姓啊?-我姓张,弓长张

分析:作为一种拼字法,弓长张在英语中没有对应的意象。

译文:-May I have your family name, please?-My family name is Zhang, Z-H-A-N-G.

再分析:“弓长张”体现的不仅仅是拼字法层面的转换,作为一种文化现象,其体现了文化层面的转换。而且,这种转换并不是无法实现的,确切地来说是很难实现。

 

2

原文:秋天,一群群大雁常排成字形一起飞过。

译文:In autumn, flocks of wild geese often fly by in a V-shaped formation.

分析:中国人用汉字形容形状,外国人用字母形容形状。

再分析:goose通常指的是鹅,wild goose才是大雁,选词一定要确切。

 

2语音/音韵层面的转换。这一层面的转换在诗歌翻译中较常见,主要涉及韵式转换及节奏转换。如:

 

3

原文:To see a world in a grain of sand, And a heaven in a wild flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand, And Eternity in an hour.

译文:世界,一花天堂。无限握手中,永恒瞬时光。

分析:原文的abab韵式转换成汉语古诗中常见的abcb韵式。

 

3词汇层面的转换。这类转换主要涉及词类转换。如:

 

4

原文:掌握英语不容易,非得下苦功夫多练不可。

译文:The mastery of English is not easy and requires painstaking efforts and practice.

改译1It is not easy to master English that you have to work hard and practice more.

分析:“下苦功夫多练”本来是动词词组,译成英文转换成了名词词组。

再分析:这句话除了涉及词汇转换外,还涉及句法转换。改译1所用的强调句型是翻译这类结构的句子比较常用的句型。

 

4句法层面的转换。包括主动-被动转换、语序转换、形合-意合转换、主语-话题转换,等等。如:

 

5

原文:今天邀请大家来开座谈会,是要和大家就高等院校的专业设置交换意见。

译文:You have been invited to this forum today to exchange ideas on the setup of specialties in colleges and universities.

改译1We extend our cordial welcome to invite you to this forum today to exchange ideas on the setup of specialties in colleges and universities.

分析:主动语态转换成被动语态。

再分析:改译1采用的句型更加适用于正式场合。

 

6

原文:SLOW, CHILDREN AT PLAY

译文:儿童在游戏,车辆请缓

改译1:儿童嬉戏,减速慢行

分析:语序的转换。

再分析:警示语的翻译原则是简洁明了。

 

5词汇-句法转换。这类转换相当于Catford所说的层级转换Level shift)。如把原文的某个词/短语转换成译文的小句/句子。如:

 

7

原文:Alchemists made resultless efforts to transform one metal into another.

译文:炼金术士企图把一种金属转变成另一种金属,这完全是徒劳的

分析:这种形容词、副词单列一句在长句翻译中较为常见。

 

6语义层面的转换。如具体-概略转换,即把原文对某一事物或概念的具体化表述在翻译中用概略化的表述来表达,或把原文对某一事物或概念的概略化表述在翻译中用具体化的表述来表达。如:

 

8

原文:唉,我每天都得为柴米油盐酱醋茶操心。

译文:Alas, I have to worry about daily necessities every day.

 

此外还有肯定-否定转换、模糊-明晰转换等。

 

7语篇层面的转换。英汉语篇在信息分布模式和语篇结构上有诸多区别,因此英汉翻译中需对原文语篇进行结构重组,以使译文符合目的语的语篇信息分布模式或语篇结构规范。如:

 

9

原文:在中国政府促进中部地区崛起战略的强力推动下,加上中部地区优越的自然资源和人才资源优势,国际产业和中国东部沿海地区产业加速向中部转移,正形成新一轮潮涌中部之势

译文:A new trend of “Coming to Central Region” is being formed, owing to the strategy of boosting the rise of the central region, the advantages of natural resources and human resources in central China, and the transfer of international industries and industries from coastal areas of East China to the central China.

改译1A new trend of “Coming to Central China” is being formed, owing to the strategy of boosting the rise of the central China, the advantages of natural resources and human resources in central China, and the transfer of international industries and industries from coastal areas of East China to the central China.

改译2International industries and industries from coastal areas of East China are accelerating their transfer to the central China, forming a new trend of “Coming to Central China” owing to the strategy of boosting the rise of the central China and the advantages of natural resources and human resources in central China.

分析:句子的核心部分是“正形成新一轮潮涌中部之势”,前面的文字都是在为其做铺垫,根据英语中主句在前的一般原则,宜最先把它翻译出来,再处理别的部分。

再分析:改译1与初译的区别是central region改成了central China,这样既统一了用词,也能很好地体现出是“中国中部”,不是别的国家的“中部”;改译2以“国际产业和中国东部沿海作主句,正确的剖析了句子的结构,即条件-结果-趋势。

 

8语用层面的转换。在真实的交际场景中,中英文使用者在交流中各自会受到其不同的语用原则和语用规范的。因此翻译中需在语用层面进行适当转换,以使译文符合目的语的语用规范。如:

 

10

原文:你一路上辛苦了!

译文:How’s your trip?/Did you have a nice trip?

 

9文化层面的转换。进行这一转换的根本原因在于不同民族具有不同的文化规范。翻译中如希望充分实现译文的可接受性,就需尽力向目的语的文化规范靠拢。如:

 

11

原文:雨后春笋

译文:Spring up like mushroom

 

12

原文:《梁山伯与祝英台》

译文:Romeo and Juliet

分析:如果单单指书名,可以这样翻,如果是情节描写,就需要按拼音翻译了。结合语境,具体问题,具体分析。

 

三、案例

 

在日常的翻译工作中,我们接触最多的是词汇、句法、语义、语篇等转换。

 

13

原文:仿冒产品具有更高的销售价格。

初译:Brand copycat has a higher selling price.

改译1Brand copycat is more lucrative.

分析:初译很明显是直译,如果深剖这句话,其实不难看出并不是仿冒产品销售价格高,即卖的贵,而是相较于正品来说,仿冒产品利润率更高。

 

14

原文:其实从去年以来,AMD与英特尔在桌面上的对决,我们看得也非常多了,可以说大家互有胜负。

初译:In fact, we have seen a lot competitions between AMD and Intel since last year, and it can be said that they have been broken even.

改译1The past year has witnessed quite enough competitions between AMD and Intel over desktops, with ups and downs on both sides.

改译2In fact, there have been a lot of competitions between AMD and Intel on the desktop systems since last year, and it can be said that they have been rivals of each other.

改译3AMD and Inter has competed publicly since last year, from which we have witnessed victories on both sides for many times.

改译4AMD and Intel have competed on desktop strategies since last year, from which we have witnessed victories on both sides for many times.

分析:改译1的句式非常地好,但其中包含了妥协的成分——“从去年以来”并不仅仅指去年,而是指从去年到现在,可能包含今年的一部分;改译2的主要特点是there be句型替换“we have seen…”,句型更贴合英语表达习惯,“互有胜负”到“成为宿敌”也是很不错的转换;改译3和改译4很像,不同的地方在于对“桌面上”的理解,其可以理解为“台面上”,即“公开”,又可以理解为“电脑桌面”指代电脑。

 

15

原文:虽然第八代酷处理器是支持DDR4内存的,但绝大部分笔记本依然还是用LP DDR3内存,苹果不例外,MagicBook也不例外,配了双通道的8GB LPDDR3内存,频率为2133MHz

初译:Although the eighth-generation Core CPU supports DDR4 memory, most laptops still use LP DDR3 memory. There are no exception for Apple and MagicBook, which are equipped with dual channel memory LP DDR3 (8GB) with a frequency of 2133MHz.

改译1Although the eighth-generation Core CPU supports DDR4 memory, most laptops such as MacBook and MagicBook are still using LP DDR3 memory, which are equipped with dual channel memory LP DDR3 (8GB) with a frequency of 2133MHz.

分析:“不例外”可以进行简化,将其“植入”“绝大部分笔记本”中——such as;结合上下文语境,将“苹果”理解为苹果笔记本,即MacBook,也使得转换更加精准。

 

16

原文:不过好马配好鞍AMD APU有个毛病,就是对内存非常敏感,市面上很多单通道的锐龙APU笔记本性能不能完全发挥出来,单通道内存的Radeon Vega 8核显只是略微领先于英特尔八代酷i5-8250U集成的UHD620核芯显卡,幸好MagicBook配备了双通道共8GBDDR4内存,而且频率为2400MHz

初译:However, a good saddle should be provided for a good horse. AMD APU has a problem, i.e., very sensitive to memory, which results in that the performance of many single-channel Ryzen APU laptops on the market cannot be fully played out. The Radeon Vega 8 HD Graphics with single channel memory is only slightly ahead of UHD620 core graphics integrated by Intel eighth-generation Core i5-8250U in performance, but fortunately, MagicBook is equipped with dual channel memory DDR4 (8GB) with a frequency of 2400MHz.

改译1As we know, a good ship asks for deep water. AMD APU is very sensitive to memory, which results in that the performance of many single-channel Ryzen APU laptops on the market cannot be fully played out. The Radeon Vega 8 HD Graphics with single channel memory is only slightly advanced to UHD620 core graphics integrated by Intel eighth-generation Core i5-8250U in performance, but fortunately, MagicBook is equipped with dual channel memory DDR4 (8GB) with a frequency of 2400MHz.

分析:习语通常都不是直译,一般找目的语中对应的或者是相似的表达;“有个毛病”并不是真的指AMD APU有问题“problem”,而是说它有瑕疵(可用“defect”),或者可以直接省译,直接说它“对内存非常敏感”;“略微领先于”最准确的表达是“slightly advanced to”,“ahead of”有领先的意思,但不太适用于“技术上的领先”;原文中的“其”指代不明,这种情况下可以采用被动句。

 

17

原文:外资银行营业性机构临时停业3天以上6个月以下,应当在临时停业后5日内向银保监会或所在地银保监会派出机构报告,说明临时停业时间、理由及停业期间安排。

初译:Where the business institution of a foreign-funded bank is temporarily suspended for more than 3 days and less than 6 months, it shall, within 5 days after the temporary suspension, report to the CBIRC or the branch organ of local banking and insurance regulatory commission, stating the temporary time, reason and arrangements for temporary suspension.

改译1Where the business institution of a foreign-funded bank is temporarily suspended for more than 3 days and less than 6 months, it shall, within 5 days after the temporary suspension, report to the CBIRC or the branch of local banking and insurance regulatory commission, stating the duration, reason and arrangements during the temporary suspension.

改译2Where the business institution of a foreign-funded bank is temporarily suspended for more than 3 days and less than 6 months, it shall, within 5 days after the temporary suspension, report to the CBIRC or the branch of local banking and insurance regulatory commission with the duration, reason and corresponding arrangements.

改译3A business institution of a foreign-funded bank shall, within 5 days after the temporary suspension, report to the CBIRC or the branch of local banking and insurance regulatory commission with the duration, reason and corresponding arrangements, where it is temporarily suspended for more than 3 days and less than 6 months.

分析:“派出机构”可以直接用branch来表示;“停业时间”指的是一个时间段,不是时间点,所以duration比较合适;report to stating在语义表达上有重复,可以用介词with来代替;“停业期间安排”这句,因前文存在有关“停业”的表述,所以此处可以用“相应安排”来进行简化;中文一般先说“废话”,再说主要部分,而英文一般先说主要部分,再说“废话”,因此在翻译时,要注意句子主干与从句的位置。

 

四、结语

 

翻译,说到底是对语言以及文化的转换,想要做好这个工作,仅了解一种语言、一个层面是行不通的,译者需要在日常的翻译工作中加深对源语言和目的语的了解。对于实际翻译工作中的句子,译者需要先找主干然后根据目的语的表达习惯(各种转换层面与方法)进行重组,这样翻译出来的句子层次清晰,结构规范,表达完整。

 


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